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叛纤酪屠  韧遗型乓  寥了任遗世 - 朽珥 爨蝈痂嚯
 

韧乓仁 杖倘着咽日 信朗秩 体蝾滂麇耜铄 镱耦徼 洛腓觇 皖忏铕钿 灭铠邂 . . 疏礤蜩赅 蹊扈麇耜桴 疱嚓鲨: 喻遽眍 镱耦徼 / 皖忏铕钿耜栝 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙睇 箜桠屦耔蝈. 喻遽眍 镱耦徼 ...

藻溴疣朦眍 嚆屙蝰蜮 镱 钺疣珙忄龛

藻溴疣朦眍 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙眍 钺疣珙忄蝈朦眍 篦疱驿屙桢

恹聒邈 镳铘羼耔铐嚯钽 钺疣珙忄龛

皖忏铕钿耜栝 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙睇 箜桠屦耔蝈 桁. 唣铖豚忄 腆漯钽

脏牦朦蝈 羼蝈耱忮眄 磬箨 镳桊钿睇 疱耋瘃钼

枢翦漯 蹊扈 铍钽梃

嗜团胰世 杖倘着咽日 信朗秩

体蝾滂麇耜铄 镱耦徼

洛腓觇 皖忏铕钿

灭铠邂 . . 疏礤蜩赅 蹊扈麇耜桴 疱嚓鲨: 喻遽眍 镱耦徼 /

皖忏铕钿耜栝 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙睇 箜桠屦耔蝈.

喻遽眍 镱耦徼 镳邃磬珥圜屙 潆 耱箐屙蝾 耧弼栲朦眍耱彘 桁梓羼赅 蝈蹴铍钽 礤铕汔龛麇耜桴 忮耱饣 桁 项耦徼 耦溴疰栩 爨蝈痂嚯 镱 玎觐磬 觇礤蜩觇 磬镳噔脲眄铖蜩 蹊扈麇耜桴 疱嚓鲨 镱祛汔弪 耱箐屙蜞 耦耱噔脲龛 爨蝈痂嚯 徉豚眈钼 蹊扈觐蝈蹴铍钽梓羼觇 镳铞羼耦, 恹犷疱 铒蜩爨朦睇 篑腩忤 镳钼邃屙 镳铎脲眄 镳铞羼耦 矬蝈 桴 桧蝈眈梏桕圉梃.

镱耦徼 镳桠邃屙 镳桁屦 疣聍弪钼 镟疣戾蝠钼 蹊扈麇耜桴 疱嚓鲨. 泥睇 觐眚痤朦睇 玎溧龛 潆 恹镱腠屙.

皖忏铕钿耜栝 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙睇 箜桠屦耔蝈, 2006 灭铠邂 .., 2006

盐呐衅劳扰

骡邃屙桢

1 填脲牦痦铖螯 镱漕 疱嚓鲨

2 脏牝铕, 钺篑腩怆桠帼 耜铕铖螯 蹊扈麇耜桴 疱嚓鲨

3 青忤耔祛耱 耜铕铖蜩 疱嚓鲨 铗 赅蜞腓玎蝾痤

4 疏礤蜩赅 沐蝈痤沐眄 镳铞羼耦

5 朽聍弪 耦耱噔 疣忭钼羼眍 耢羼 潆 耠篦噱, 觐沅 镳铗尻噱 钿磬 疱嚓鲨, 礤耜铍 镟疣腚咫 桦 镱耠邃钼囹咫 镳铗尻帼 疱嚓鲨............. 13 6 暑眈蜞眚 疣忭钼羼



7 青觐 溴轳蜮簋 爨耨

暑眚痤朦睇 玎溧龛

侣拍磐扰

溧眄铎 篦遽眍 镱耦徼 桤豚汔 爨蝈痂嚯 疣玟咫 屦祛滂磬扈麇耜桢 踵疣牝屦桉蜩觇 疋铋耱忄 忮耱 蹊扈麇耜桴 耔耱屐 牦瘃 孱疱蜩麇耜桢 铖眍恹 蝈蹴铍钽梃 礤铕汔龛麇耜桴 忮耱饣. 镱耦徼 镳桠邃屙 镳桁屦 疣聍弪钼 耦耱噔 疣忭钼羼眍 耢羼 潆 耠篦噱, 觐沅 镳铗尻噱 钿磬 疱嚓鲨, 礤耜铍 镟疣腚咫 桦 镱耠邃钼囹咫 镳铗尻帼 疱嚓鲨, 觐眈蜞眚 疣忭钼羼 漯筱桴 镟疣戾蝠钼 蹊扈麇耜桴 疱嚓鲨 镱 蝈铕弪梓羼觇 钺铖眍忄眄 镱塍镨痂麇耜桁 镱腩驽龛 玎忤耔祛耱.

泥眄铄 镱耦徼 镱祛汔弪 耱箐屙蜞 钼豚溴龛 戾蝾溧扈 疣聍弪钼 铒蜩扈玎鲨 蹊扈觐-蝈蹴铍钽梓羼觇 镳铞羼耦. 雾 怆弪 漕镱腠屙桢 爨蝈痂嚯囔, 桤腩驽眄 觏桡. 务眍忭铋 邈 鲥朦 怆弪 镳桠栩桢 磬恹觐 桉镱朦珙忄龛 疱珞朦蜞蝾 翳玷觐-蹊扈麇耜桴 桉耠邃钼囗栝 桧驽礤痦铋 镳嚓蜩赍.

1 涛伺视诉型窝臆 衔羞奈 信朗秩

   

洋祆囵眍: 2 N2O5 = 2N2O4 + 2, 觐蝾瘥 铒疱溴 耦犷 磬犭噱祗 耜铕铖螯 耋祆囵眍 疱嚓鲨.

买铕梓睇 屐屙蜞痦 嚓螓 铒疱溴 耦犷 磬犭噱祗 (铒疱溴屐簋 桤戾疱龛屐) 耜铕铖螯 耋祆囵眍 疱嚓鲨 埋脲漶蜮桢 钽, 蝾麝 琊屙 桤戾屐 觐眦屙蝠圉栝 疱嚆桊簋 觐祜铐屙蝾 蝈麇龛屐 怵屐屙, 怦 蹊扈麇耜桢 疱嚓鲨 疣玟咫 (镱 犷脲 纛痨嚯铎 桴 镳桤磬牦) 磬 疱嚓鲨 镥疴钽, 怛铕钽, 蝠弪泐 恹聒邈 镱潢钼, 礤玎忤耔祛 铗 桴 祛脲牦痦铖蜩. 疱嚓鲨 镥疴钽 镱潢 铗眍蝰 蝈 疱嚓鲨, 耜铕铖螯 觐蝾瘥 镱 疱珞朦蜞蜞 桤戾疱龛 觐眦屙蝠圉栝 桉躅漤 忮耱 觐礤黜 镳钿箨蝾 镱澉桧弪 觇礤蜩麇耜铎 箴噔礤龛 (1.1), 礤玎忤耔祛 铗 桴 桉蜩眄钽 戾踵龛珈. 理嚯钽梓眍 铎 怦 疱嚓鲨, 镱澉桧桢 觇礤蜩麇耜桁 箴噔礤龛 徼祛脲牦痦 (1.2) (1.2.) 蝠桁铍尻箅痦 (1.3) 疱嚓鲨, 耦铗忮蝰蜮屙眍 磬琨忄 疱嚓鲨扈 怛铕钽 蝠弪泐 镱潢钼.





袜镳桁屦, 疣耨祛蝠屙睇 恹 疱嚓鲨 铗眍蝰 耠邃簋 蜩镟 赅蝈泐痂:

2虸 = 2 + I2 徼祛脲牦痦, 怛铕钽 镱潢 2NO + 2 = 2NO2 徼祛脲牦痦, 蝠弪泐 镱潢 2 N2O5 = 2N2O4 + 2 祛眍祛脲牦痦, 怛铕钽 镱潢.

如 铒疱溴脲龛 镱潢 疱嚓鲨 恹蝈赅弪, 黩 疱嚓鲨 镥疴钽 镱潢 耱艴桀戾蝠梓羼觇 觐翳鲨屙 镳祛 疱嚓鲨 疣忮 邃桧桷, 疱嚓鲨 怛铕钽 镱潢 溻箪, 蝠弪泐 镱潢 蝠屐 .. 央邃箦 桁弪 忤潴, 黩 耱艴桀戾蝠梓羼觇 觐翳鲨屙螓 蝾泐 桦 桧钽 疣忮眈蜮 蹊扈麇耜铋 疱嚓鲨 礤 怦邈溧 铒疱溴 耦犷 镱漕, 蝈 犷脲 祛脲牦痦铖螯 疱嚓鲨. 镳铖螓, 蜩镟 箨噻囗睇 恹, 疱嚓鲨  觐翳鲨屙螓 耦怙噤帼 镱潢铎 疱嚓鲨, 眍  礤 怦邈溧 蜞.

橡嚓蜩麇耜 镱漕 疱嚓鲨 磬 铖眍忄龛 桤戾礤龛 邋 耜铕铖蜩 铒疱溴弪 耧屦桁屙蜞朦眍.

橡 桤戾疱龛 觇礤蜩觇 蹊扈麇耜铋 疱嚓鲨 觐眈蜞眚 耜铕铖蜩 礤钺躅滂祛 怦邈溧 恹疣驵螯 钿眍桁屙睇 邃桧桷圊. 暑眈蜞眚 耜铕铖蜩 膻犷 疱嚓鲨 玎忤耔 铗 蝈祜屦囹箴. 碾 疱嚓鲨 镥疴钽 镱潢 k 礤 玎忤耔 龛 铗 恹狃囗睇 邃桧桷 桤戾疱龛 觐眦屙蝠圉栝 ( ), 龛 铗 耱屣屙 疣玑噔脲龛 疣耱忸疣. 碾 徼- 蝠桁铍尻箅痦 疱嚓鲨 麒耠屙眍 珥圜屙桢 k 玎忤耔 铗 恹狃囗睇 邃桧桷 桤戾疱龛, , 耠邃钼囹咫, 铗 耱屣屙 疣玑噔脲龛 疣耱忸疣 桦 汔玎.

橡桁屦 1. 项漶麒蜞螯 耜铕铖螯 铎屙 箨耋耥铨蜩腩忸泐 桊:

淹3盐窝25 + Na瓮 = 淹3盐蜰a + 󘰍瓮, 篷腓: )  疱嚓鲨 怛铕钽 镱潢, ) 桉躅漤 觐眦屙蝠圉梃 桊 腩麒 镱 16 祛朦/潇3, ) 麇疱 5 扈眢 疱珞朦蜞蝈 疱嚓鲨 觐眦屙蝠圉 赅驿钽 桤 龛 镱龛玷豚顸 漕 10.24 祛朦/潇3.

绣龛.

青 5 扈 镳铕遴汨痤忄腩 = 16 10.24 = 5.76 祛朦/潇3 桊 耱铍 驽 腩麒.

悟颃溧 镱 箴噔礤龛 (1.2.) 镱塍麒:

k = /(鄸 ) = 5.76/5*16 (165.76) =0.0070 祛朦/潇3 1 扈

2 岳室涡, 瘟友宋滤嚷擂偃 咽涡窝臆 杖倘着咽日

信朗秩

令朦眈蜮 蹊扈麇耜桴 镳铞羼耦 镳铗尻噱 蜞觇 钺疣珙, 黩 镳钿箨螓 疱嚓鲨, 礤镳铕遴汨痤忄怿桢 桉躅漤 忮耱忄 礤镳屦眍 铗忸蝰 桤 囡镟疣蜞, 忪羼蝾 龛 镱耱眄 漕徉怆弪 眍忸 觐腓麇耱忸 桉躅漤 忮耱. 央邃钼囹咫, 觐眦屙蝠圉 镱耠邃龛 赅驿铎 篦囫蜿 囡镟疣蜞 蝈麇龛 怦邈 镳铞羼襦 铖蜞弪 镱耱眄铋. 悟颃溧 耜铕铖螯 疱嚓鲨 赅驿铎 篦囫蜿 囡镟疣蜞 篑蜞磬怆桠噱蝰 镱耱眄铋. 袜 怩钿 磬鬣朦睇 忮耱 疱嚓鲨铐睇 囡镟疣, 觐沅 觐眦屙蝠圉 桴 爨犟桁嚯, 耜铕铖螯 疱嚓鲨 狍溴 蜞赕 爨犟桁嚯铋, 磬 恹躅溴 桤 囡镟疣蜞 铐 耱囗钼栩 扈龛爨朦眍. 央邃钼囹咫, 恹躅 镳钿箨蝾 疱嚓鲨 玎忤耔 铗 怵屐屙 镳遽囗 疱嚓鲨铐眍 囡镟疣蝈 桉躅漤 忮耱; 铐 爨犟桁嚯 蝾 耠篦噱, 羼腓 疱嚆桊簋 忮耱忄 狍潴 磬躅滂螯 玟羼 蝈麇龛 怵屐屙, 漕耱囹铟眍泐 潆 蝾泐, 黩钺 疱嚓鲨 漕耱桡豚 疣忭钼羼眍泐 耦耱龛. 羼蝈耱忮眄, 黩 钿龛 桤 汶噔睇 羿牝铕钼, 铒疱溴桴 镳铊玮钿栩咫铖螯 囡镟疣蜞, 桦, 黩 蝾 驽, 疣珈屦 邈 镳 疣忭铋 镳铊玮钿栩咫铖蜩, 狍溴 怆螯 耜铕铖螯 疱嚓鲨, 铖簌羼蜮屐铋 囡镟疣蝈.

如 箴噔礤龛 (1.1) (1.3) 耠邃箦, 黩 耜铕铖螯 膻犷 蹊扈麇耜铋 疱嚓鲨 玎忤耔 铗 忮腓麒睇 邋 觐眈蜞眚 铗 觐眦屙蝠圉梃 疱嚆桊簋 忮耱, 耠邃钼囹咫, 潆 疱嚓鲨, 镳铗尻帼 汔珙忸 羿珏, 铗 溧怆屙.

橡 觐眦屙蝠圉梃 疱嚆桊簋 忮耱, 疣忭铋 邃桧桷 (1 祛朦/潇3), 觐眈蜞眚 耜铕铖蜩 麒耠屙眍 疣忭 耜铕铖蜩 疱嚓鲨:

V = k[(祛朦/潇3) 扈-1] (2.1.) 亦觇 钺疣珙, 觐眈蜞眚 耜铕铖蜩 疱嚓鲨 踵疣牝屦桤箦 镳桊钿 疱嚆桊簋 忮耱 铒疱溴弪 耦犷 麒耠 嚓蜩忭 耱铍觏钼屙栝 疱嚆桊簋 祛脲牦 邃桧桷 怵屐屙 (1 皴, 1 扈) 邃桧桷 钺爨 镳 觐眦屙蝠圉梃 桴 1 祛朦/潇3. 疋玷 蝈, 黩 镱恹龛屐 蝈祜屦囹箴 麒耠 嚓蜩忭 耱铍觏钼屙栝 祛脲牦 筲咫梓桠噱蝰, 觐眈蜞眚 耜铕铖蜩, 耠邃钼囹咫, 耜铕铖螯 蹊扈麇耜铋 疱嚓鲨 狍潴 玎忤皴螯 铗 蝈祜屦囹箴.

亦, 镳 忡噼祛溴轳蜮梃 噻铗 觇耠铕钿铎 N2 + 22N

青戾蝽铄 觐腓麇耱忸 铌耔溧 噻铗 祛骓 钺磬痼骅螯:

- 镳 8500 镳桁屦眍 麇疱 10 鬣耦;

- 犷脲 16000 麇疱 1.0 皴;

- 犷脲 20000 0.005 皴.

枢 镱赅琨忄弪 铒, 镱恹龛 蝈祜屦囹箴 磬 10 沭噤 恹琨忄弪 筲咫梓屙桢 耜铕铖蜩 蹊扈麇耜铋 疱嚓鲨 镳桁屦眍 24 疣玎 (镳噔桦 锣眚妙趑).

Vt2 = Vt1 (t2 t1)/10 (2.2) k t2 = k t1 (t2 t1)/10 (2.2), 沅 Vt2 耜铕铖螯 k t2 觐眈蜞眚 耜铕铖蜩 疱嚓鲨 镳 蝈祜屦囹箴 t2;

Vt1 耜铕铖螯 k t1 觐眈蜞眚 耜铕铖蜩 镳 蝈祜屦囹箴 t1 ;

蝈祜屦囹箴睇 觐翳鲨屙 耜铕铖蜩, 珥圜屙桢 觐蝾痤泐 疣忭 2-4.

疹  镳噔桦 怆弪 镳栳腓驽眄, 镳嚓蜩赍 桁 镱朦珞 潆 铕桢眚桊钼铟眍 铞屙觇 耱屣屙 怆龛 蝈祜屦囹箴 磬 耜铕铖螯 疱嚓鲨.

袜栳铍邋 蝾黜 蝈祜屦囹箴磬 玎忤耔祛耱 耜铕铖蜩 徼祛脲牦痦 疱嚓鲨 疱嚓鲨 怛铕钽 镱潢, 镳铗尻帼 泐祛沐眄铋 耩邃, 铒疱溴弪 箴噔礤龛屐 鲤疱龛篑:

k t = 0 -q嚓/R, (2.3) 沅 0 觐翳鲨屙, 恹疣驵栝 麒耠 怦艴 耱铍觏钼屙栝 疱嚆桊簋 祛脲牦 邃桧桷 怵屐屙; 铖眍忄龛 磬蝮疣朦睇 腩汔痂綮钼; q嚓 屦汨 嚓蜩忄鲨 溧眄铋 疱嚓鲨, 恹疣驽眄 滏 磬 祛朦/潇3; R 汔珙忄 镱耱眄, 疣忭 8.3144 滏/祛朦枫疣; 噌耦膻蝽 蝈祜屦囹箴, 潆 觐蝾痤 铒疱溴弪 觐眈蜞眚 耜铕铖蜩.

添铈栩咫 -q嚓/R 镳邃耱噔弪 耦犷 蝮 漕膻 钺泐 麒耠 祛脲牦, 觐蝾疣 疱嚓鲨铐眍耧铖钺磬. 暑翳鲨屙 0 铒疱溴弪 耦犷 镳桊钿 疱嚆桊簋 忮耱.

羽噔礤龛 鲤疱龛篑 滂趑屦屙鲨嚯铋 纛痨 怆弪 铖眍忭 镳 镱漶麇蜞 屦汨 (蝈镫铗) 嚓蜩忄鲨 蹊扈麇耜桴 疱嚓鲨:

d q嚓 = (R2/d) 2.3 lgk, (2.3) 沅 k 觐眈蜞眚 耜铕铖蜩 疱嚓鲨; q嚓 蝈镫铗 嚓蜩忄鲨 ( 滏/祛朦*沭噤); 蝈祜屦囹箴, 镳 觐蝾痤 镳铗尻噱 疱嚓鲨; R 汔珙忄 镱耱眄.

篷腓 觐眈蜞眚 耜铕铖蜩 溧眄铋 疱嚓鲨 镳 蝈祜屦囹箴 1 疣忭 k1, 镳 蝈祜屦囹箴 2 疣忭, 蝾 桧蝈沭桊 恹疣驽龛 (2.3) 镳邃咫圊 铗 1 漕

2 铗 k1 漕 k2, 镱塍麒:

2.3lg k2/ k1 = (q嚓/R) *(1/ 1 1/ 2) (2.4) 橡桁屦 2. 骂 耜铍 疣 筲咫梓栩 耜铕铖螯 疱嚓鲨 耔眚彗 囔扈嚓 镳 筲咫梓屙梃 溧怆屙 3 疣玎, 磬镳桁屦, 镳 溧怆屙梃 6 觏/2 镱 耩噔礤龛 耦 耜铕铖螯 铋 疱嚓鲨, 镳铗尻帼 镱 溧怆屙桢 2 觏/2?

绣龛.

殃铕铖螯 疱嚓鲨 32 + N2 2N3 恹疣玷蝰 V = k[2]3 [N2].

橡 筲咫梓屙梃 溧怆屙 疱嚓鲨铐眍 耢羼 蝠 疣玎 觐眦屙蝠圉梃 疱嚆桊簋 忮耱, 耦汶囫眍 耠邃耱忤 玎觐磬 令殡, 筲咫梓囹 蜞赕 3 疣玎 狍潴 疣忭 [32] [3N2]. 悟颃溧 耜铕铖螯 疱嚓鲨, 耦汶囫眍 玎觐眢 溴轳蜮簋 爨耨, 铒疱溴腓蝰 V'= k[32]3 [3N2] = 81 k[32]3 [3N2] 央邃钼囹咫, 耜铕铖螯 镳祛 疱嚓鲨 镳 筲咫梓屙梃 溧怆屙 3 疣玎 筲咫梓栩 81 疣.

3 抢氯讶涛岩 咽涡窝胰 信朗秩 我 世依巳抢椅形

橡 铗耋蝰蜮梃 溧眄铋 耔耱屐 赅蜞腓玎蝾痤 磬栳铍邋 翦牝桠睇 羿牝铕铎, 耠箧帙桁 潆 镱恹龛 耜铕铖蜩 蹊扈麇耜铋 疱嚓鲨, 铖钺屙眍耱 泐祛沐眄 镳铞羼襦, 怆弪 蝈祜屦囹箴: 麇 恹 蝈祜屦囹箴, 蝈 犷朦 嚓蜩忭 耱铍觏钼屙栝, , 耠邃钼囹咫, 蝈 犷朦 耜铕铖螯 蹊扈麇耜钽 忡噼祛溴轳蜮 忮耱.

武磬觐 耠篦噱 钺疣蜩禧 珙蝈痨梓羼觇 疱嚓鲨, 觐蝾瘥 镳铎脲眄铋 镳嚓蜩赍 玎龛爨 忮潴 戾耱, 镱恹龛 蝈祜屦囹箴 耥桄噱 恹躅 镳钿箨蝾 疱嚓鲨 (镳桧鲨 隋-剜蝈朦). 蒡 溻 镳铗桠铕鬻帙桴 钺耱蝈朦耱忄 蝈祜屦囹箴眍 玎忤耔祛耱: 1) 驽豚蝈朦眍 筲咫梓屙桢 蝈祜屦囹箴 镱恹龛 耜铕铖蜩 疱嚓鲨 钿眍怵屐屙眍;

2) 牮嚅礤 礤驽豚蝈朦眍 镱龛驽龛 恹躅溧 疣琊屮帼蝰 镳嚓蜩赍 镳桁屙屙桢 赅蜞腓玎蝾痤. 项耠邃龛 镳 溧眄铋 蝈祜屦囹箴, 礤 铌噻 龛赅觐泐 怆龛 磬 恹躅 镳钿箨蝾 疱嚓鲨, 铟屙 耔朦眍 桤戾 邋 耜铕铖螯. 央邃钼囹咫, 麇 犷朦 溧眄 赅蜞腓玎蝾 篑觐弪 疱嚓鲨, 蝈 犷朦 镳铊玮钿栩咫铖螯 囡镟疣 镳 蝾 驽 蝈祜屦囹箴.

枢蜞腓玎蝾瘥 猁忄 镱腩骅蝈朦睇 铗痂鲟蝈朦睇; 镥疴 筲咫梓桠帼 耜铕铖螯 疱嚓鲨, 怛铕 邋 箪屙帼. 务眍忭 镱赅玎蝈脲 赅麇耱忄 赅蜞腓玎蝾疣 怆弪 桴 嚓蜩忭铖螯, 铒疱溴屐 耧屦桁屙蜞朦睇 矬蝈. 篷腓 驽 溧眄 疱嚓鲨 镳铗尻噱 疣珉梓睇 磬镳噔脲龛, 蝾, 牮铎 嚓蜩忭铖蜩, 忄骓彘 踵疣牝屦桉蜩觐 赅蜞腓玎蝾痤 耠箧栩 桤徼疣蝈朦眍耱 桴 溴轳蜮 (皴脲牝桠眍顸).

狸蜩忭铖螯 赅蜞腓玎蝾疣 铒疱溴弪 耱屣屙 篑觐疱龛 溧眄铋 疱嚓鲨 镱 耩噔礤龛 镳铗尻囗桢 邋 徨 赅蜞腓玎蝾疣 蝈 驽 篑腩忤. 袜镳桁屦, 耜铕铖螯 铌桉脲龛 皴痦桉蝾泐 汔玎 磬 镫囹桧钼铎 赅蜞腓玎蝾疱 镳 500-6000 筲咫梓桠噱蝰 耦蝽 疣 镱 耩噔礤龛 耦 耜铕铖螯 钽 镳铞羼襦, 镳铗尻帼 徨 赅蜞腓玎蝾疣, 磬 忄磬滂邂 礤耜铍 戾睃, 磬 驽脲珥 妁 戾睃. 绣嚓鲨 铌桉脲龛 囔扈嚓 漕 铌耔漕 噻铗 徨 赅蜞腓玎蝾痤 龛黩铈眍 爨豚, 镳桉篁耱忤 镫囹桧钼-痤滂邂钽 赅蜞腓玎蝾疣 铐 篑觐弪 扈腚桀睇 疣 玎赅眵桠噱蝰 溴蜩螓黜 漕腓 皴牦礓.

耠篦噱 泐祛沐眄 疱嚓鲨 耜铕铖螯 桴, , 耠邃钼囹咫, 觐眈蜞眚 耜铕铖蜩 镳铒铕鲨铐嚯 觐腓麇耱怏 赅蜞腓玎蝾疣:

k= *狸, (3.1) 铗牦溧 狸 =k/, (3.1) 沅 狸 镳铊玮钿栩咫铖螯 赅蜞腓玎蝾疣; k 栮铐耱囗蜞 耜铕铖蜩; 觐眦屙蝠圉 赅蜞腓玎蝾疣 (/潇3).

镳嚓蜩赍 沐蝈痤沐眄 赅蜞腓蜩麇耜桴 镳铞羼耦 嚓蜩忭铖螯 赅蜞腓玎蝾疣 铞屙桠噱蝰 怵屐屙屐 觐眚嚓蜞 麒耠铎 嚓蜩忭铖蜩, 桦 镳铊玮钿栩咫铖螯 赅蜞腓玎蝾疣.

吗屐屙屐 觐眚嚓蜞 () 磬琨忄弪 怵屐 皴牦礓圊, 蝈麇龛 觐蝾痤泐 疱嚆桊簋 忮耱忸 磬躅滂蝰 觐眚嚓蝈 赅蜞腓玎蝾痤:

=3600/w钺. 皴; (3.2) 沅 w钺 钺祉 耜铕铖螯 忮耱忄, 镳铛钿泐 麇疱 赅蜞腓玎蝾 (3/); 耠篦噱 汔珙 觐腓麇耱忸 桴 漕腈眍 猁螯 镳桠邃屙 眍痨嚯 篑腩忤 (盱3/).

阻耠铎 嚓蜩忭铖蜩 桦 镳铊玮钿栩咫铖蜩 赅蜞腓玎蝾疣 磬琨忄弪 镳嚓蜩麇耜栝 恹躅 镳钿箨蜞 (m镳嚓.) 邃桧桷 镱忮瘐眍耱 (2), 爨耨 (赉) 桦 钺爨 (3) 赅蜞腓玎蝾疣 邃桧桷 怵屐屙 扈, 皴):

狸 = m镳嚓/F赅.[赉/3*鱙 = m镳嚓/m赅騕赉/赉*鱙 = m镳嚓/V赅騕赉/3*鱙. (3.3) 彦脲牝桠眍耱 赅蜞腓玎蝾痤 磬琨忄弪 桴 疋铋耱忸 篑觐螯 镳彖祗耱忮眄 钿眢 桴 忸珈铈睇 疱嚓鲨, 忸珥桕帼 镳 蹊扈麇耜铎 忡噼祛溴轳蜮梃 桉躅漤 忮耱. 袜镳桁屦, 镳 3000 15-20 添/2 铌桉 筱脲痤溧 忸漕痤漕 忡噼祛溴轳蜮簋 磬 戾漤铎 赅蜞腓玎蝾疱 钺疣珙忄龛屐 戾蜞眍豚 (盐 +2 =淹3瓮), 镳桉篁耱忤 鲨黻-躔铎钼钽 赅蜞腓玎蝾疣, 嚓蜩忤痤忄眄钽 腩鼽, 镳 蝈 驽 篑腩忤 钺疣珙忄龛屐 耔眚铍 (耢羼 嚯邈桎钼, 耧桊蝾, 赍蝾眍 骅痦 觇耠铗).

橡桁屦 3.

袜 铒眍 篑蜞眍怅 镱 铌桉脲龛 囔扈嚓 磬 镫囹桧钼铎 赅蜞腓玎蝾疱 耋蜿 镱塍麇眍 720 赉 蚇3. 锑耨 镫囹桧钼铋 皴蜿 32.

项漶麒蜞螯 嚓蜩忭铖螯 赅蜞腓玎蝾疣.

绣龛.

项 箴噔礤龛 (4) 桁邋 狸 = 720 赉/0.032 赉*(24*60)扈 = 15.6 赉/赉*扈

4 嗜团胰世 门遗形门屯壅 闲沃叛盐

琼圜栩咫铄 麒耠 疣耧痤耱疣礤眄 镳铎脲眄铋 镳嚓蜩赍 蹊扈麇耜桴 疱嚓鲨 翳玷觐-蹊扈麇耜桴 镳铞羼耦 镳铗尻噱 沐蝈痤沐眄铋 耩邃. 袜镳桁屦, 沐蝈痤沐眄 踵疣牝屦 眍:

) 犷朦眈蜮 铖簌羼蜮屐 镳铎脲眄铖蜩 赅蜞腓蜩麇耜桴 镳铞羼耦 (镳铊玮钿耱忸 皴痦铋 觇耠铗 觐眚嚓蝽 戾蝾漕, 耔眚彗 囔扈嚓, 戾蜞眍豚, 噻铗眍 觇耠铗 ..);

) 镳铞羼覃 汨漯铍桤 漯邂羼桧 漯筱桴 疣耱栩咫 爨蝈痂嚯钼 (镳铊玮钿耱忸 桤 漯邂羼桧 耧桊蜞, 漯铈驽 ..);

) 镳铞羼覃, 脲驵 铖眍忮 镳铊玮钿耱忄 桉牦耨蜮屙眍泐 忸腩觏;

) 怦 镳铞羼覃 疣耱忸疱龛 蜮屦潲 镳钿箨蝾.

镱漕犴钽 痤溧 沐蝈痤沐眄 耔耱屐圊 忡噼祛溴轳蜮桢 觐祜铐屙蝾 镳铊聃钿栩 磬 镱忮瘐眍耱 疣玟咫 蜮屦漕 骅潢铋 桦 蜮屦漕 汔珙钺疣珥铋 羿. 篷蝈耱忮眄, 黩 桴 耠篦 桉觌栩咫簋 痤朦 桡疣 疣珈屦 镳桊钿 镱忮瘐眍耱 蜮屦漕 羿琨, 蜞赕 踵疣牝屦 镱蝾赅 骅潢铖蜩 桦 汔玎 镱忮瘐眍耱 蜮屦漕泐 蝈豚 (豚扈磬痦铖螯 桦 蝮疳箅屙蝽铖螯 镱蝾觐). 西屙 鬣耱 耋耱忮眄簋 痤朦 桡疣 镳铞羼覃 滂趑箸梃 (疣眈镱痱桊钼囗 镳钿箨蝾 镱忮瘐眍耱 桦 铗 镱忮瘐眍耱 疣玟咫 羿), 觐蝾瘥 钺篑腩怆桠帼 镥疱溻桄屙桢 疱嚆桊簋 觐祜铐屙蝾 蜮屦漕 镱忮瘐眍耱 铗忸 镳钿箨蝾 疱嚓鲨 蜮屦漕 镱忮瘐眍耱 骅潢簋 桦 汔珙钺疣珥簋 羿珞. 项铎 觇礤蜩赅 镱漕犴 镳铞羼耦 鲥腩 狍溴 铒疱溴螯 礤 耜铕铖螯 忡噼祛溴轳蜮 觐祜铐屙蝾(蹊扈麇耜铋 疱嚓鲨彘 桦 疣耱忸疱龛 蜮屦漕泐 蝈豚), 耦铗眍龛屐 铋 耜铕铖蜩 耜铕铖蜩 滂趑箸梃. 篷腓 耜铕铖螯 蹊扈麇耜铋 疱嚓鲨 戾睃, 麇 耜铕铖螯 滂趑箸梃, 蝾 铐 狍溴 铒疱溴螯 耦犷 觇礤蜩牦 镳铞羼襦 鲥腩, 磬钺铕铗, 镳 犷朦 耜铕铖蜩 疱嚓鲨 觇礤蜩赅 怦邈 镳铞羼襦 狍溴 铒疱溴螯 耜铕铖螯 滂趑箸梃.

如 疣耨祛蝠屙 镳铞羼耦, 镳铗尻帼 磬 镱忮瘐眍耱 疣玟咫 蜮屦漕 骅潢铋 羿, 耠邃箦, 黩 耜铕铖螯 怦邈 镳铞羼襦, 赅 镳噔桦, 狍溴 铒疱溴螯 耜铕铖螯 滂趑箸梃 镱忮瘐眍耱 蜮屦漕 羿 疣耱忸 蝈 镳钿箨蝾, 觐蝾瘥 镱塍鬣 疱珞朦蜞蝈 忡噼祛溴轳蜮 骅潢铋 蜮屦漕 羿 桦 驽 耜铕铖螯 滂趑箸梃 镱忮瘐眍耱 蜮屦漕 羿琨 疱嚆桊簋 觐祜铐屙蝾, ..  滂趑箸 钺眍 镳铗尻噱 铟屙 戾潆屙眍.

殃铕铖螯 滂趑箸梃 (V滂趑.) 怦觐泐 镳铞羼襦 铒疱溴弪 镱 箴噔礤龛 V滂趑 =d/d = (朏D/V) *(鄸) (4.1) 桦 镱耠 桧蝈沭桊钼囗 D =(2.3 V/F) *lg (/鄸), (4.1) 沅 F 镫铢噤 镱忮瘐眍耱 疣玟咫 羿 ( 耢 ); 蝾膣桧 磬覃眄钽 耠 磬 镱忮瘐眍耱 疣玟咫 羿, 麇疱 觐蝾瘥 镳铊聃钿栩 滂趑箸 ( 耢); 觐眦屙蝠圉 疱嚆桊簋泐 觐祜铐屙蜞 钺戾 骅潢铋 桦 耦铗忮蝰蜮屙眍 汔珙钺疣珥铋 羿琨 ( 祛朦/潇3); V 钺 骅潢铋 桦 汔珙钺疣珥铋 羿琨; D 觐翳鲨屙 滂趑箸梃, 觐蝾瘥 耠篦噱 骅潢铋 羿琨 玎忤耔 铗 蝈祜屦囹箴 珀铖蜩 铋 羿琨 铗 漯筱桴 羿牝铕钼; 潆 犷朦眈蜮 骅潢铖蝈 觐翳鲨屙 滂趑箸梃 桁邋 忮腓麒眢 镱潢 10-3 10-4 耢2/扈.

翌膣桧 耠 () 麇疱 觐蝾瘥 镳铗尻噱 镳铞羼 滂趑箸梃, 潆 赅驿钽 觐黻疱蝽钽 镳铞羼襦 溧眄 篑腩忤 镱耱眄.

悟颃溧 觇礤蜩麇耜铄 箴噔礤龛 滂趑箸梃 (3.1), 铗礤皴眄铄 邃桧桷 镫铢噤 (F =1 耢2) 钺爨 (V =1耢3), 镳桁弪 忤 潆 祛眍祛脲牦痦钽 镳铞羼襦:

D/ =k =(2.3/) *lg (/鄸) (4.2).

5 欣炎乓 盐岩缆 欣峦温叛臀 烟叛 乃 阉幼琅, 饰媚

闲我攀琅 文屠 信朗秩, 团咽嗡苁 侠欣怂潘芡壅 人

衔阉拍温酪潘芡 闲我攀擂偃 信朗秩

琼囗桢 觐眈蜞眚 疣忭钼羼 疱嚓鲨 镱玮铍弪 疣耨麒蜞螯 耦耱噔 疣忭钼羼眍 耢羼, .. 铒疱溴腓螯 爨犟桁嚯 忸珈铈睇 桦 蝈铕弪梓羼觇 恹躅 驽豚屐钽 镳钿箨蜞.

杨耱噔 疣忭钼羼眍 耢羼 耔耱屐 磬躅滂蝰 疱龛屐 箴噔礤龛 玎觐磬 溴轳蜮 爨耨.

朽耨祛蝠桁, 磬镳桁屦, 疱嚓鲨 +2 篷腓 疱嚓鲨 桎弪 汔珙忸 羿珏 镳 篑腩忤, 黩 汔琨 祛骓 聍栩囹 桎遴朦睇扈, 玎觐 溴轳蜮 爨耨 潆 箨噻囗眍 疱嚓鲨 玎镨蝰 蜞:

署 =鹧/2 鹄, (5.1) 沅 鹧,鹇,鹄 镟瘀栲朦睇 溧怆屙 耦铗忮蝰蜮簋 觐祜铐屙蝾 疣忭钼羼眍 耔耱屐.

相瘀栲朦眍 溧怆屙桢 膻犷泐 觐祜铐屙蜞 镱 玎觐眢 泥朦蝾磬 疣忭 餴 =(ni/ ni) =Ni, 沅 ni 麒耠 祛脲 i-泐 觐祜铐屙蜞 疣忭钼羼眍 耢羼; ni 钺 麒耠 祛脲 怦艴 耦耱噔桴 疣忭钼羼眢 耢羼; - 钺 溧怆屙桢 耔耱屐 祛戾眚 疣忭钼羼; Ni 祛朦磬 漕 i-泐 觐祜铐屙蜞 疣忭钼羼眍 耢羼.

项耠 镱漶蜞眍怅 镟瘀栲朦睇 溧怆屙栝, 恹疣驽眄 镱 玎觐眢 泥朦蝾磬, 箴噔礤龛 溴轳蜮 爨耨 镱塍麒 署 =N /(N N2) 2 (5.2) 亦觇 钺疣珙, 疱龛 玎溧麒 镱 铒疱溴脲龛 耦耱噔 疣忭钼羼眍 耢羼 疋钿栩 铒疱溴脲龛 祛朦睇 漕脲 觐祜铐屙蝾 耢羼, 蜞 赅 钺 溧怆屙桢 耔耱屐 钺眍 桤忮耱眍. 橡 疱龛 玎溧 耠邃箦 镱祉栩, 黩 汔琨 礤玎忤耔祛 铗 溧怆屙 耔耱屐, 聍栩帼蝰 桎遴朦睇扈, 镱铎 觐眈蜞眚 疣忭钼羼 铗 溧怆屙 礤 玎忤耔.

填朦睇 漕腓 觐祜铐屙蝾 疣忭钼羼眍 耢羼 疋琨忄 麒耠铎 祛脲 桉躅漤钽 忮耱忄, 镳铕遴汨痤忄怿邈 祛戾眚 疣忭钼羼. 阻耠 祛脲 赅驿钽 桤 疱嚆桊簋 忮耱 桉躅漤铋 耢羼 祛驽 猁螯 膻猁.

亦, 潆 疣耨爨蝠桠噱祛 疱嚓鲨 + 2 项腩骅, 黩 觐腓麇耱忸 祛脲 桉躅漤铋 耢羼 n0 =, n0 = b, n0 =0.

翌沅 疣忭钼羼眍 耢羼 n =鄸, n = b 2, n =. 洋祆囵眍 麒耠 祛脲 疣忭钼羼眍 耔耱屐 ni = n+ n+ n= + b 2.

填朦睇 漕腓 觐祜铐屙蝾 耔耱屐 N = (鄸)/( + b 2); N = (b 2) /( + b 2); N =/( + b 2).

项耠 镱漶蜞眍怅 恹疣驽龛 Ni (5.2) 狍溴 桁弪 箴噔礤龛 蝠弪 耱屣屙 铗眍耔蝈朦眍 :

署 =( + b 2)2/( 桋) (b 2)2 2.

溴 耠篦噱 祛泱 镱塍鬣螯 箴噔礤龛 漯钺睇 桦 麇蜮屦蝾 恹 耱屣屙彘. 绣螯 镱漕犴 箴噔礤龛 祛骓 沭圄梓羼觇 桦 戾蝾溧扈 镱耠邃钼囹咫 镳栳腓驽龛.

骂 祉钽桴 耠篦 蜞 桦 桧 疱嚓鲨 祛驽 镳铗尻囹 镱 礤耜铍桁 镟疣腚咫 磬镳噔脲龛 钺疣珙忄龛屐 礤耜铍桴 觐礤黜 忮耱.

奏 怦邈 蜞觇 耠篦噼 磬犭帼蝰, 觐沅 钺疣珞 礤耜铍 桤铎屦钼 疱珞朦蜞蝈 蜞觇 疱嚓鲨, 赅 桤铎屦桤圉, 溴汨漯桊钼囗桢, 龛蝠钼囗桢, 蹼铕桊钼囗桢 漯. 漯筱桴 耠篦 忸珈铈眍 镳铗尻囗桢 疣珉梓睇 疱嚓鲨, 磬镳桁屦, 溴汨漯桊钼囗桢 桤铎屦桤圉. 杨耱噔 疣忭钼羼眍 耢羼 蜞觐 耔耱屐 耜豚潲忄弪 桤 怦艴 忮耱, 觐蝾瘥 篦囫蜮簋 疱嚓鲨 钺疣珞 疱珞朦蜞蝈 礤. 杨溴疰囗桢 赅驿钽 驽 忮耱忄 疣忭钼羼眍 耢羼 疣耨麒螓忄弪 镱 觐眈蜞眚 疣忭钼羼 耦铗忮蝰蜮簋 疱嚓鲨.

亦觇 钺疣珙, 疣聍弪 耦耱噔 疣忭钼羼眍 耢羼 耠篦噱 钿眍怵屐屙眍泐 镳铗尻囗 礤耜铍桴 疱嚓鲨 羿牝梓羼觇 疋钿栩 疱龛 耔耱屐 箴噔礤龛, 麒耠 觐蝾瘥 耦铗忮蝰蜮箦 麒耠 镟疣腚咫 疱嚓鲨.

6 饰脱依鸵 欣峦温叛冗

耦耱龛 疣忭钼羼 铗眍龛 镳铊玮邃屙栝 觐眦屙蝠圉栝 桉躅漤 忮耱 镳铊玮邃屙棹 觐眦屙蝠圉栝 镳钿箨蝾 疱嚓鲨 羼螯 忮腓麒磬 镱耱眄:

[繻1 [耛2 /[裖3 [D]4 =, (6.1) 沅 觐眈蜞眚 疣忭钼羼, 珥圜屙桢 觐蝾痤 潆 溧眄铋 疱嚓鲨 玎忤耔 蝾朦觐 铗 蝈祜屦囹箴, 潆 汔珙 铗 溧怆屙.

羽噔礤龛 (6.1.) 镱塍麒腩 痤觐 镳桁屙屙桢 镳嚓蜩赍 蝈蹴铛桁梓羼觇 疣聍弪钼. 亦, 铐 溧弪 忸珈铈眍耱 疣耨麒螓忄螯 爨犟桁嚯 恹躅 镳钿箨蝾 疱嚓鲨, .. 恹躅 桴 祛戾眚 疣忭钼羼, 镳铞屙 镳邂疣龛 桉躅漤 忮耱 觐礤黜 镳钿箨螓 疱嚓鲨 漯筱桢 镱赅玎蝈腓 镳铊玮钿耱忮眄钽 镳铞羼襦.

玎忤耔祛耱 铗 蝾泐, 赅觇 邃桧桷圊 恹疣驽磬 觐眦屙蝠圉 忮耱, 篦囫蜮簋 溧眄铋 疱嚓鲨, 疣珉梓帼 蝠 耧铖钺 恹疣驽龛 觐眈蜞眚 疣忭钼羼:

蜀 觐沅 觐眦屙蝠圉 疱嚆桊簋 忮耱 , , , D 恹疣驽磬 祛朦/潇 桦 祛朦/3

   

蕁 = [n繻1 [n耛2 /[n裖3 [nD]4 (祛朦) ' " (6.1) 体驿 蜀, 署 蕁 耋耱怏弪 耠邃簋 玎忤耔祛耱 蜀 = 署/(R)'" = 署/(蠽)'" = 蕁/V'" (6.1) 入, 黩 蝾 驽, 蜀 = 署(R) ' " = 署(蠽) ' " = 蕁V ' " (6.1) 桴 箴噔礤龛: R 汔珙忄 镱耱眄; 噌耦膻蝽 蝈祜屦囹箴, 镳 觐蝾痤 镳铗尻噱 疱嚓鲨; V 麒耠 邃桧桷 钺爨 疱嚓鲨铐眍 耢羼 疣忭钼羼眍 耦耱龛 磬 '/" 邃桧桷 钺爨 桉躅漤 忮耱; ' 钺 觐腓麇耱忸 祛脲 桉躅漤 忮耱, .. 耋祆 祛脲 忮耱 镳祛 疱嚓鲨; " 蝾 驽 潆 镳钿箨蝾 钺疣蝽铋 疱嚓鲨.

溧朦礤轼屐 疣聍弪圊 忪羼蝾 恹疣驽龛 (' ") 禧 狍溴 镱朦珙忄螯 钺铉磬麇龛屐, 觐蝾痤 疣忭 =(1 +2) (3 +4).

袜栳铍邋 镳嚓蜩麇耜铄 珥圜屙桢 疣聍弪圊 汔珙恹 耔耱屐 桁妣 觐眈蜞眚 疣忭钼羼 署 蕁, 蜞 赅 耦耱噔 汔珙恹 耢羼彘 桤忮耱屙 桦 蝠遽箦蝰 镱漶麒螓忄螯 鬣 怦邈 钺祉 镳铞屙蜞 桦 驽 镟瘀栲朦睇 溧怆屙. 疣聍弪圊 疣忭钼羼睇 耦耱龛 骅潢铋 羿珏 鬣 怦邈 镱朦珞 觐眈蜞眚铋 蜀.

篷腓 疱嚓鲨 桎弪 徨 桤戾礤龛 钺爨, .. 觐沅 钺 麒耠 祛脲 镳祛 疱嚓鲨 疣忭 麒耠 祛脲 钺疣蝽铋 疱嚓鲨 (=0), 蝾 署= 蜀 =蕁.

橡 铎 徨琊噻腓黜, 赅觇 邃桧桷圊 桤戾疱龛 恹疣驽磬 觐眦屙蝠圉 篦囫蜮簋 疱嚓鲨 忮耱.

暑眈蜞眚 疣忭钼羼 潆 赅驿铋 疱嚓鲨 镳 铒疱溴脲眄铋 蝈祜屦囹箴 羼螯 忮腓麒磬 镱耱眄. 央邃钼囹咫, 珥 忮腓麒眢 , 祛骓 恹麒耠栩 觐腓麇耱忸 忮耱 疣忭钼羼睇 耦耱龛 溧眄铋 疱嚓鲨, 铗颃溧 爨犟桁嚯 恹躅潲 镳钿箨蝾 疱嚓鲨. 镳嚓蜩麇耜铎 铖簌羼蜮脲龛 赅驿铋 蹊扈麇耜铋 疱嚓鲨 篑蜞磬怆桠噱蝰 疋 镳嚓蜩麇耜 耱屣屙 漕耱桡眢蝾泐 疣忭钼羼, 觐蝾疣 潆 珥圜栩咫钽 麒耠 疱嚓鲨, 铖簌羼蜮屐 镳铎脲眄铖蜩, 疣忭 85-90%.

镳嚓蜩赍 镳桧蝾 镳 镱漶麇蝈 耦耱噔 恹躅溧 镳钿箨蝾 疱嚓鲨 磬 铖眍忮 觐眈蜞眚 疣忭钼羼 箴噔礤龛 (6.1 6.1) 麒耠栩咫 耱噔栩 觐眦屙蝠圉棹 蝈 忮耱, 觐蝾瘥 疱嚆桊簋 恹溴脲龛屐 蝈镫, 珥囔屙囹咫 蝈, 觐蝾瘥 镱汶铢帼 邈. 袜镳桁屦, 潆 疱嚓鲨 盐 +2 =盐2 +2 +q 觐眈蜞眚 疣忭钼羼 狍溴 蜀 =[盐] [2蝅/ [盐2] [2], 潆 疱嚓鲨 N2 +2 =2N 杚 (桦 2N = N2 +2 +q) 雾 镳桁弪 忤 蜀 =[N蝅2/ [2] [N2] 钺铊 耠篦 麒耠栩咫 耱铊 觐眦屙蝠圉 忮耱, 觐蝾瘥 疱嚆桊簋 镱腩骅蝈朦睇 蝈镫钼 翦牝铎.

篷腓 溧眄铋 蹊扈麇耜铋 疱嚓鲨 磬潴 汔玎扈 镳桧桁帼 篦囫蜩 蜮屦潲 忮耱忄, 蝾 觐眦屙蝠圉 镱耠邃龛 箴噔礤龛 觐眈蜞眚 礤 怩钿栩. 亦, 潆 疱嚓鲨

   

橡桁屦 1. 觐眈蜞眚 疣忭钼羼 疱嚓鲨 2 +I2 2虸 镳 4500 疣忭 50.

1. 项漶麒蜞螯 麒耠 祛脲 虸 ( 祛戾眚 疣忭钼羼), 钺疣珞桴 镳 忡噼祛溴轳蜮梃 5.30 祛朦 I2 7.94 祛朦 2.

绣龛.

吾铉磬麒 觐腓麇耱忸 虸 祛戾眚 疣忭钼羼 麇疱 祛朦/潇3, 钺, 玎龛爨屐 汔珙 麇疱 V潇3. 翌沅 觐腓麇耱忸 2 I2, 怦蝮镨怿桴 疱嚓鲨, 耦耱噔栩 /2 祛朦/潇3 潆 2 /2 祛朦/潇3 栦 I2. 悟颃溧 耦耱噔 疣忭钼羼眍 耢羼 ( 祛朦/潇3): [虸] 桋, [I2] =(5.30 /2), [2] = (7.94 /2).

项漶蜞怆  珥圜屙 箴噔礤龛 潆 觐眈蜞眚 疣忭钼羼, 镱塍麒 =[虸]2/[2] [I2] =(鮒)2/[ V(7.94 /2)] [ V(5.30 /2)], =42/(15.88 桋) (10.6 桋) =50.1 绣  箴噔礤龛 铗眍耔蝈朦眍 , 磬躅滂 1=19.24 祛朦/潇3, 2 =9.523 祛朦/潇3 琼圜屙桢 1=19.24 祛朦/潇3, 赅 礤疱嚯铄, 铗狃囫噱 (钺 珥圜屙桢 桉躅漤 忮耱 疣忭 7.94 +5.3 =13.24 祛朦/潇3, .. 戾睃 镱塍麇眄钽 珥圜屙 1).

亦觇 钺疣珙, 疣忭钼羼磬 耢羼 桁邋 耦耱噔:

[虸] =9.523 祛朦/潇3, [I2] =(5.30 4.761) =0.539 祛朦/潇3, [2] =(7.94 4.761) =3.179 祛朦/潇3.

7 抢饰 呐裳衣愚偃 汤蜒

杨汶囫眍 玎觐眢 溴轳蜮簋 爨耨, 耜铕铖螯 怦觐 蹊扈麇耜铋 疱嚓鲨 镳铒铕鲨铐嚯 镳铊玮邃屙棹 觐眦屙蝠圉栝 疱嚆桊簋 忮耱.

亦, 磬镳桁屦, 镳 蹊扈麇耜铎 忡噼祛溴轳蜮梃 忮耱 钺疣珙忄龛屐 镳钿箨蝾 D 1 + 2 3 + 4D 耜铕铖螯 镳祛 疱嚓鲨 (v1) 恹疣玷蝰 v1 =k1[ 繻1 [耛2, (7.1) 沅 [繻 [耛 觐眦屙蝠圉梃 疱嚆桊簋 觐祜铐屙蝾 ;

k1 觐眈蜞眚 耜铕铖蜩 疱嚓鲨, 珥圜屙桢 觐蝾痤 玎忤耔 铗 镳桊钿 疱嚆桊簋 觐祜铐屙蝾 铗 蝈祜屦囹箴 疱嚓鲨; 磬躅滂蝰 铐 钺眍 铒睇 矬蝈.

橡 怦觐 蹊扈麇耜铋 疱嚓鲨 镳铞羼 桎弪 礤 蝾朦觐 耠邂 磬镳噔 耱铕铐 钺疣珙忄龛 镳钿箨蝾 D, 镱耠邃龛 蝾蝼囫 驽 怦蝮镟 蹊扈麇耜铄 忡噼祛溴轳蜮桢, 钺疣珞 耥钼 桉躅漤 忮耱忄 黎 . 殃铕铖螯 钺疣蝽铋 疱嚓鲨 (3 + 4D) 疣忭 v2=k2[裖3 [D]4. (7.1) 央邃钼囹咫, 镱 戾疱 蝾泐 赅 躅溴 疱嚓鲨 觐眦屙蝠圉梃 桉躅漤 忮耱 磬麒磬 筢囹, 耜铕铖螯 镳祛 疱嚓鲨 (1 + 2) 箪屙噱蝰. 蒡 耜铕铖螯 桁邋 磬栳铍邋 珥圜屙桢 襦祛 磬鬣脲 疱嚓鲨 (觐沅 觐眦屙蝠圉梃 爨犟桁嚯) 漕躅滂 漕 眢 觐眦 邋 (觐沅 忮耱忄 黎 戾驿 耦犷 镱腠铖螯 镳铕遴汨痼). 皖 疱珞朦蜞蝈 铋 镳祛 疱嚓鲨 钺疣珞 镳钿箨螓 D, 耜铕铖螯 疱嚓鲨 觐蝾瘥 蝈麇龛屐 怵屐屙, 磬钺铕铗, 狍溴 筲咫梓桠囹; 磬麒磬 铗 眢膻, 铐 觐眦 觐眦钼 漕耱桡礤 忮腓麒睇, 疣忭铋 耜铕铖蜩 镳祛 疱嚓鲨. 橡 铎 邃桧桷 怵屐屙 狍溴 钺疣珙恹忄螯 耱铍 镳钿箨蝾 D, 耜铍 桴 狍溴 桉麇玎螯, .. 耥钼 镳邂疣螯 桉躅漤 忮耱忄 . 铗 祛戾眚 磬耱箫噱 蹊扈麇耜铄 疣忭钼羼桢. 项耠邃礤 礤 铉磬鬣弪, 黩 疱嚓鲨 镳尻疣蜩豚顸. 雾 镱赅琨忄弪, 黩 耜铕铖蜩 镳祛 钺疣蝽铋 疱嚓鲨 铗 祛戾眚 疣忭; 镱耠 钽 祛戾眚 觐眦屙蝠圉梃 桉躅漤 忮耱 镳钿箨蝾 疱嚓鲨 铖蜞 镱耱眄. 央邃钼囹咫, 祛戾眚 疣忭钼羼 k1[ 繻1 [耛2 = k2[裖3 [D]4.

v1 = v2, [繻1 [耛2 /[裖3 [D]4= k2/ k1 = , 悟颃溧 (7.2) 沅 栮铐耱囗蜞 疣忭钼羼 蹊扈麇耜铋 疱嚓鲨.

疱珞朦蜞蝈 钺 疱嚓鲨, 磬觌噤顸 漯筱 磬 漯筱, 赅驿 溧眄 祛戾眚 桴 铗 磬鬣豚 溧 铒疱溴脲眄铄 觐腓麇耱忸 镳钿箨蝾 疱嚓鲨, 觐蝾痤 祛戾眚 疣忭钼羼 狍溴 爨犟桁嚯 潆 溧眄 篑腩忤 镳铗尻囗 疱嚓鲨. 朽忭钼羼睇 耦耱噔, .. 觐腓麇耱忸 镳钿箨蜞, 钺疣珞邈铖 祛戾眚 疣忭钼羼, .. 蝾 爨犟桁箪, 觐蝾痤祗 耱疱扈蝰 溧眄 疱嚓鲨 溧眄 篑腩忤.

悟眍龛 羿牝梓羼觐泐 (镳嚓蜩麇耜钽 镳嚓) 觐腓麇耱忄 镳钿箨蜞 疱嚓鲨 蝈铕弪梓羼觐祗 邈 觐腓麇耱怏 (蝈铕.), 恹疣驽眄铄 镳铞屙蜞, 磬琨忄弪 恹躅漕 镳钿箨蜞 疱嚓鲨, 桦 镳铞屙蝾 镳邂疣龛 = (镳嚓/ 蝈铕 )*100% 篷蝈耱忮眄, 黩 镳 疣忭钼羼眍 耦耱龛 恹躅 疱嚓鲨 狍溴 爨犟桁嚯.

   

青溧龛 1.

族疱 觐腩眄 耔眚彗 囔扈嚓 镳铒篑赅弪 30000盱3/ 噻铗钼钿铕钿眍 耢羼. 暑腓麇耱忸 赅蜞腓玎蝾疣 觐腩眄 1. 3;

镳铊玮钿栩咫铖螯 邋 90000赉 囔扈嚓 耋蜿. 袜 铖眍忄龛 桴 溧眄 铒疱溴腓螯 钺祉簋 耜铕铖螯, 怵屐 觐眚嚓蜞 镳铊玮钿栩咫铖螯 (嚓蜩忭铖螯) 赅蜞腓玎蝾疣.

青溧龛 2.

骂 耜铍 疣 筲咫梓栩 耜铕铖螯 疣耱忸疱龛 驽脲玎 % 耦眍 觇耠铗 镳 镱恹龛 蝈祜屦囹箴 18 漕 320, 羼腓 蝈祜屦囹箴睇 觐翳鲨屙 耜铕铖蜩 疣耱忸疱龛 疣忮 2.8?

青溧龛 3.

襄疱觇顸 忸漕痤溧, 磬鬣朦磬 觐眦屙蝠圉 觐蝾痤 疣忭 25.4 祛朦/潇3, 疣珉嚆噱蝰 镳桉篁耱忤 赅蜞腓玎蝾疣. 族疱 15 扈 疣耱忸疱 铖蜞腩顸 镥疱觇耔 忸漕痤溧 9.83 祛朦/潇3, 麇疱 30 扈 3.81 祛朦/潇3.

物疱溴腓螯 镱漕 疱嚓鲨 󌜴 = 2 + ; + = 2 青溧龛 4.

橡 赅觇 耦铗眍龛 噻铗 忸漕痤溧 耜铕铖螯 桴 蹊扈麇耜钽 忡噼祛溴轳蜮 镳 耔眚彗 囔扈嚓 狍溴 爨犟桁嚯铋 礤玎忤耔祛 铗 篑腩忤 耔眚彗?

青溧龛 5.

绵珙怏 耢羼 耦耱噔 (镱 钺祗) 20% 盐 80% N2 镳铒篑赅 镳 1000 0.1 添/2 磬 玎觇顸 驽脲玎, 觐蝾疣 忸耨蜞磬怆桠噱蝰 漕 驽脲玎:

F逦 +盐 =F +盐2 杚.

项漶麒蜞螯 觐腓麇耱忸 镱塍鬣邈铖 驽脲玎 磬 1000 3 汔玎 (镳桠邃屙眍泐 眍痨嚯 篑腩忤) 耦耱噔 疣忭钼羼眍 汔珙忸 耢羼, 羼腓 疱嚓鲨 忸耨蜞眍怆屙 F逦 F 漕耱桡噱 疣忭钼羼眍泐 耦耱龛 镳 溧眄 篑腩忤 蜀 =0.403.

青溧龛 6.

橡 赅觇 耦铗眍龛 祛痦 觐眦屙蝠圉栝 噻铗 忸漕痤 溧潴 爨犟桁嚯 恹躅 囔扈嚓?

青溧龛 7.

汔珙忸 耢羼, 耦耱 桤 30% 盐, 10% 2 60% 镟痤 忸潲, 镱耠 镳铒篑赅龛 邋 麇疱 觐眚嚓蝽 囡镟疣 钺磬痼驽眍 27% 盐2. 物疱溴腓螯 恹躅 疱嚓鲨 桦 镳铞屙 镳邂疣龛.



项躅骅 疣犷螓:

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